Hows this for a real life example of just how compaction effects soil structure, and soil moisture holding capacity. The photo shows the areas where the tractors have run (six passes spraying and cultivating)the soil is quite dry, by comparison in between the two rows of cane which has had no traffic at all is still very moist. The irrigation was down the wheel tracks so that is where it was most concentrated but due to compaction it could not hold the same moisture as the uncompacted soil between the cane rows. This effect is from relatively light machinery so it is very easy to see why a 30 plus tonne machine does so much damage to soil structure. We are applying the top up of nitrogen and canegrub control both 150mm under the soil surface, and I am preparing the paddock for one more final pass, to form the row profile to match our harvester.